Understanding Erasure Coding with Rubrik

It is imperative for any file system to be highly scalable, performant, and fault tolerant. Otherwise…why would you even bother to store data there? But realistically, achieving fault tolerance is done through data redundancy. On the flipside, the cost of redundancy is increased storage overhead. There are two possible encoding schemes for fault tolerance: triple mirroring (RF3) and erasure coding. To ensure the Scale Data Distributed Filesystem (SDFS, codenamed “Atlas”) is fault tolerant while increasing capacity and maintaining higher performance, Rubrik uses a schema called erasure coding.

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Understanding MongoDB’s Replica Sets

As a part of its native replication, MongoDB maintains multiple copies of data in a construct called a replica set.

Replica Sets

So, what is a replica set? A replica set in MongoDB is a group of mongod (primary daemon process for the MongoDB system) process that maintains the same data set. Put simply, it is a group of MongoDB servers operating in a primary / secondary failover fashion. Replica sets provide redundancy and high availability.

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Catch Me at VMworld US 2017!

It’s that time of summer — VMworld US is only a few days away! Yet again I am making the trek to Las Vegas for the festivities. I wanted to highlight the sessions where I will be presenting so that you have the opportunity to either schedule and come heckle or remind yourself to watch later. I will be hanging around the vBrownBag area of VMvillage or the Rubrik booth when not presenting; come say hello!

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jk, I am too pale to be outside in Las Vegas

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#VirtualDesignMaster Wrap-Up

Part of me feels like it flew by but then I remember the hours spent reviewing all the designs (*ahem* Adam) and then it feels like it took an eternity to get through. Admittedly, Virtual Design Master was probably one of the coolest community driven events in which I have participated. If you are unfamiliar with Virtual Design Master, I strongly encourage you to check out the site and catch up with the five seasons.Read More »

vBrownBag – VCAP6-DCV Design Objective 2.2

vBrownBag EMEA is in the midst of recording sessions that cover the VCAP6-DCV Deploy (3V0-622) exam. If you are interested in presenting one of the exam objective, see the Call for Presenters post here.

Objective 2.2 – Map Service Dependencies

Skills and Abilities

  • Evaluate dependencies for infrastructure and application services that will be included in a vSphere design.
  • Create Entity Relationship Diagrams that map service relationships and dependencies.
  • Analyze interfaces to be used with new and existing business processes.
  • Determine service dependencies for logical components.
  • Include service dependencies in a vSphere 6.x Logical Design.
  • Analyze services to identify upstream and downstream service dependencies.
  • Navigate logical components and their interdependencies and make decisions based upon all service relationships.

Additional Resources

  • Graham’s blog post on Objective 2.2.
  • Don Ward’s post called “VMware Application Dependencies and Entity Relationship Diagrams”

Without further ado, the podcast recording can be found here:

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Virtual Design Master: Conceptual, Logical, Physical

This year I am honored to be one of the Virtual Design Master (vDM) judges. If you are unfamiliar with vDM, it is a technology driven reality competition that showcases virtualization community member and their talents as architects. Some competitors are seasoned architect while others are just beginning their design journey. To find out more information, please click here. One of the things that I, along with the other judges, noticed is that many of the contestants did not correctly document conceptual, logical, and physical design.

The best non-IT example that I have seen of this concept the following image:

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(Figure 1) Disclaimer: I’m not cool enough to have thought of this. I think all credit goes to @StevePantol.

The way I always describe and diagram design methodology is using the following image:

Screen Shot 2017-07-06 at 9.50.05 PM
(Figure 2) Mapping it all together

I will continue to refer to both images as we move forward in this post.

Conceptual

During the assess phase, the architect reaches out to the business’ key stakeholders for the project and explore what each need and want to get out of the project. The job is to identify key constraints and the business requirements that should be met for the design, deploy, and validation phases to be successful.

The assessment phase typically coincides with building the conceptual model of a design. Effectively, the conceptual model categorizes the assessment findings into requirements, constraints, assumptions, and risks categories.

For example:

 Requirements –

  1. technicloud.com should create art.
  2. The art should be durable and able to withstand years of appreciation.
  3. Art should be able to be appreciated by millions around the world.

Constraints –

  1. Art cannot be a monolithic installation piece taking up an entire floor of the museum.
  2. Art must not be so bourgeoisie that it cannot be appreciated with an untrained eye.
  3. Art must not be paint-by-numbers.

Risks –

  1. Lead IT architect at technicloud.com has no prior experience creating art.
    • Mitigation – will require art classes to be taken at local community college.
  2. Lead IT architect is left-handed which may lead to smearing of art.
    • Mitigation – IT architect will retrain as ambidextrous.

Assumptions –

  1. Art classes at community college make artists.
  2. Museum will provide security as to ensure art appreciators do not damage artwork.

As you read through the requirements and constraints, the idea of how the design should look should be getting clearer and clearer. More risks and assumptions will be added as design decisions are made and the impact is analyzed. Notice that the conceptual model was made up entirely of words? Emphasis on “concept” in the word “conceptual”!

Logical

Once the conceptual model is built out, the architect moves into the logical design phrase (which indicated by the arrows pointing backwards in Figure 2, demonstrating dependence on conceptual). Logical design is where the architect begins making decisions but at a higher level.

Logical art work design decisions –

  1. Art will be a painting.
  2. The painting will be of a person.
  3. The person will be a woman.

For those who are having a hard time following with the art example, a tech example would be:

Screen Shot 2017-07-06 at 10.27.57 PM
(Table 1) Logical design decision example

An example of what a logical diagram may look something like this:

Picture1
(Figure 3) Logical storage diagram example

Notice that these are ‘higher’ level decisions and diagrams. We’re not quite to filling in the details yet when working on logical design. However, note that these design decisions should map back to the conceptual model.

Physical

Once the logical design has been mapped out, architect moves to physical design where hardware and software vendors are chosen and configuration specifications are made. Simply put, this is the phase where the details are determined.

Physical art work design decisions –

  1. The painting will be a half-length portrait.
  2. The medium will be oil on a poplar panel.
  3. The woman will have brown hair.

Once again, if you hate the Mona Lisa then the IT design decision example would be:

  1. XYZ vendor and model of storage array will be purchased.
  2. Storage policy based management will be used to place VMs on the correct storage tier.
  3. Tier-1 LUNs will be replicated hourly.

These are physical design decisions, which directly correlate and extend the logical design decisions with more information. But, again, at the end of the day, this should all tie back to meeting the business requirements.

Screen Shot 2017-07-06 at 10.32.54 PM
(Table 2) Physical design decision example

An example of a physical design would be something like:

phys
(Figure 4) Physical storage diagram example

Notice that in this diagram, we’re starting to see more details: vendor, model, how things are connected, etc. Remember that physical should expand on logical design decisions and fill in the blanks. At the end of the day, both logical and physical design decisions should map back to meeting the business requirements set forth in the conceptual model (as evidenced by Figure 2).

Final Thoughts

Being able to quickly and easily distinguish takes time and practice. I am hoping this clarifies some of the mystery and confusion surrounding this idea. Looking forward to seeing more vDM submissions next week.

Introducing “Alta” – Rubrik CDM 4.0

Rubrik Cloud Data Management (CDM) 4.0 is Rubrik’s ninth and largest product release. The release, named Alta, expands the Rubrik platform to encompass all major hypervisors, adding Oracle support, furthering SQL support by introducing live mount functionality, and Cloud Instantiation. Additionally, Alta closes the gap with traditional backup architectures by introducing support for tape archival.

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Rubrik CDM 4.0 Features

A few release highlights…

Rubrik Atlas Infographic

  1. Manage and protect all major hypervisors. Support is added for Microsoft Hyper-V and Nutanix Acropolis hypervisor (AHV); this adds to the already supported VMware vSphere. Enterprise organizations are now able to orchestrate application data management and availability across multi-hypervisor and cloud infrastructures.
  2. Spin up applications in a public cloud using Cloud Instantiation. Any data that has been protected on-premises and sent to Amazon S3 can now be powered on as a fully functioning AMI. This functionality will be available for any VMware virtual machines that have been archived to Amazon S3. There is no requirement for a Rubrik Cloud Cluster to be running in the target Amazon region.
  3. Automate protection and recovery of Oracle databases. Database owners and administrators can leverage Rubrik’s high performing multi-stream backups to massively reduce any impact to production and existing workflows for database backups, replication, archival, and compliance.
  4. Live Mount capabilities for Microsoft SQL. Awesome innovation that delivers near-zero recovery times versus potentially hours or even days using other methods for restoring Microsoft SQL Server. With this feature, administrators can power on a SQL Server directly on Rubrik using any point in time. This delivers self-service access along with the powerful suite of APIs that can be used to automate workflows.
  5. Archive data to tape. This is the least sexy major feature but still an important one. Rubrik automates data archival to tape for enterprises who must meet governance specifications or other any type of compliance regulations.

What I’m excited about…

Nutanix AHV support – Nutanix Acropolis is a turn-key infrastructure platform, delivering enterprise-class storage compute, and native virtualization services capable of running nearly any application. In addition to supporting to supporting VMware vSphere and Microsoft Hyper-V, Acropolis includes its own built in hypervisor, AHV. With the 4.0 Alta release, Rubrik is excited to extend its capabilities to protect AHV virtual machines, making the company one of the first to do so. It’s been a fun journey the past few years watching Nutanix grow their platform and its ecosystem– AHV has matured a lot over the past few releases. I’m looking forward to seeing Rubrik used in large enterprises to protect multi-hypervisor and multi-cloud infrastructures. 

NTNX.png

Cloud Instantiation – There is a clear macro trend of IT workloads moving to the cloud. The use of cloud storage has been a part of the Rubrik story since the initial GA release in 2015. Customers can capture data sources on-premises and leverage cloud resources, such as Amazon S3, as a long-term archival target while still maintaining the ability to search, manage, and restore the data in any location. And now with this release, Rubrik extends the functionality of data in the cloud with cloud instantiation. There’s unlimited use cases for this type of functionality, especially as its feature set grows in future releases. This can assist with DR to cloud strategies or on-premises to cloud or even cross-cloud migrations. 

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Mark your calendars — I’m co-presenting webinars on both topics this summer (AHV on 27 July and AWS Cloud Instantiation on 10 August). You can sign up here.